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第二章 中世纪玻璃器
     发布时间:2015-03-17

第二章 中世纪玻璃器 Medieval Glass

   在中世纪早期(公元410 年西罗马帝国灭亡以后),玻璃制造中心在莱茵兰、默兹河地区以及法国北部、意大利北部(伦巴第)如雨后春笋般涌现。染成绿色和棕色的玻璃被用来制作热压成型的器皿,如水杯、高脚杯和碗。公元12 至13 世纪,东西方之间的联系在历经一段长时间的中断以后,随着意大利(特别是威尼斯)和近东地区建立起的贸易关系得以恢复,玻璃的创新工艺(如珐琅彩)也随之传播至西欧地区。在欧洲,尤为突出的是绿色调“森林玻璃”实用器皿(功能性玻璃)制作在中世纪晚期的繁荣。热装饰技术是当时最为普遍的装饰工艺。在这一时期,教堂建筑盛行装饰彩色玻璃窗(玻璃彩绘),除了装饰作用,彩色玻璃窗还能够教大量不识字的人了解救赎史(《穷人圣经》)。

Glass in the Middle Ages

In the Early Middle Ages (after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 410), glassmaking centres sprung up in the regions of the Rhineland and Meuse River, northern France and northern Italy (Lombardy). Glass tainted with green or brown was used to make hot-formed vessels, such as beakers, goblets and bowls. After a long hiatus, contacts between the West and East were revived in the 12th and 13th centuries, when trade relations had been established between Italy (especially Venice) and the Near East. From there, innovative techniques extended to western Europe (e.g. enamel painting). In Europe, the High and particularly the Late Middle Ages were marked by a flourishing production of hollowware (functional glass) made of greenish-hued Forest Glass. Hot decoration was prevalent among the decorative techniques employed. During this period, stained-glass windows (painting on glass) attained a prominent role, namely in church architecture. Besides their decorative function, stained-glass windows had an edifying purpose, teaching the largely illiterate congregations the history of salvation (Biblia pauperum).

11

酒杯

法国或西德,6-7世纪

淡黄色透明玻璃,热成形;高6.5 cm

编号 10 490

1906年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

Beaker

France or western Germany, 6th–7th century

Colourless, light yellow glass, hot-shaped; H. 6.5 cm

Inv. no. 10?490

Donated in 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna, Prague

HB

12

铃铛形酒杯

法国或西德,6-7世纪

淡黄色透明玻璃,热成形;高11.5 cm

编号 16 875

1932年由斯图加特的古斯塔夫E.帕兹奥瑞克捐赠

Bell-shaped beaker

France or western Germany, 6th–7th century

Colourless, light yellow glass, hot-shaped; H. 11.5 cm

Inv. no. 16?875

Donated in 1932 by Gustav E. Pazaurek, Stuttgart

HB