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第四章 巴洛克和洛可可时期的玻璃器(1)
     发布时间:2015-03-17

第四章  巴洛克和洛可可时期的玻璃器

   巴洛克时期,为提高玻璃的纯净度,在玻璃熔融过程中进行了重要的技术革新,于公元17 世纪最后25 年终于在中欧获得成功,首次生产出高纯净度的无色玻璃。那一时期,涌现了一批推进玻璃工艺发展的关键人物:在普鲁士,约翰· 孔克尔(Johann Kunckel, 1637?-1703)通过加入氯化金成功烧制出一种红色玻璃(Goldrubinglas ,金红玻璃);在英国,乔治·雷文斯克罗夫特(George Ravenscroft, 1632-1683)率先在玻璃配合料中加入氧化铅;在法国,伯纳德·佩罗(Bernard Perrot, 1640-1709)在奥尔良皇家玻璃工厂就制作大型玻璃的技术和装饰方面取得卓越成就。由于无色玻璃优越的可用性,轮盘雕刻和切割是冷装饰工艺的主要方法。除了波希米亚王国,这些玻璃精炼工艺同样被邻近的德国和荷兰普遍使用,后者也成为钻雕装饰的核心地区。在中欧,公元17 世纪是珐琅彩玻璃的鼎盛期。而墨色调单色装饰( 又“ 黑色画珐琅”,Schwarzlot ,法语:grisaille )是另一种装饰技法。双层玻璃作为独特的装饰工艺(用于水杯,高脚杯,盘子和其他器物),在波希米亚非常流行,同时也穿越边境,在公元18 世纪上半叶流行于整个萨克森地区。许多釉下彩玻璃杰作也都创烧自巴洛克时期的中欧。

Glass of the Baroque and Rococo Periods

In the Baroque period, important technical innovations were introduced into the glass-melting process in order to achieve purity in glass. In central Europe, these endeavours were rewarded with success in the last quarter of the 17th century when high-quality clear, colourless glass was first produced. At that time, in Prussia, Johann Kunckel (1637?–1703) succeeded in melting a red glass coloured by adding gold chloride to the batch (Goldrubinglas, gold ruby glass). In England, in 1675–1676, George Ravenscroft (1632–1683) pioneered the use of lead oxide in preparing the glass batch. In France, Bernard Perrot (1640–1709) achieved remarkable results both in glass technology and decoration at the royal glassworks in Orléans, France. Due to the availability of superior colourless glass, wheel-engraving and cutting were the principal methods of cold decoration. Apart from the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, these glass-refining methods were used mainly in neighbouring Germany and the Netherlands, the latter also being the foremost centre for diamond-point engraving. In central Europe, the 17th century was the peak period for enamel-painted glass. Schwarzlot (grisaille in French) was another method of decoration. Double-walled glass was a unique decorative technique (used for beakers, goblets, plates and other objects) that was popular in Bohemia and also to some degree across the border, in Saxony, during the first half of the 18th century. Many superb examples of underpainted glass were created in central Europe during the Baroque period.

IV 巴洛克和洛可可时期的玻璃器 Glass of the Baroque and Rococo Periods

(1)巴洛克时期的刻花与雕花玻璃

Cut and Engraved Glass of the Baroque Period

62

高脚碗,鲁道夫二世时期风格

波希米亚,布拉格,19世纪

天然水晶,刻花和雕花,镶银;高11.7 cm,长17 cm

编号 78 006

1963年通过所有权转让获得

Footed bowl in the style of Rudolfine Mannerism

Bohemia, Prague, 19th century

Rock crystal, cut, engraved, silver mounting; H. 11.7 cm, L. 17 cm

Inv. no. 78?006

Acquired in 1963 by ownership transfer

HB

63

高脚酒杯,刻有克罗普斯会馆的纹章

波希米亚,约1680年

无色透明玻璃,热成形,雕花;高24 cm

编号 2743

1888年购自堂鲍尔先生

Goblet with the coat of arms of The Guild of Cropps

Bohemia, c 1680

Colourless glass, hot-shaped, engraved; H. 24

Inv. no. 2?743

Purchased in 1888 from Mr. Donebauer

HB

64

刻有狩猎纹的高脚酒杯

波希米亚,约1680年

无色透明玻璃,热成形,雕花;高40 cm

编号 411

1886年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

这件酒杯的高脚上装饰了球状节突和层叠的圆玻璃片。杯身底部起棱,表面粗略浅刻着在大自然中狩猎的场景。这种类型的酒杯可以追溯到巴洛克早期,同时也说明了外销玻璃器上特有的花纹到18世纪还在使用。

Goblet with a hunting scene

Bohemia, c. 1680

Colourless glass, hot-shaped, engraved; H. 40 cm

Inv. no. 411

Donated in 1886 by Vojtěch Lanna

This goblet on a tall stem consisting of knops and inserted discs is surmounted by a bowl decorated with ribbing in its lower part. The surface is lightly engraved with a roughly indicated landscape showing a hunting motif. This type of goblet dates back to the Early Baroque period, while also exemplifying a design distinctive of exportation glass, still used in the 18th century.

HB

65

饰有贝壳贴花的甜食碗

南波希米亚,新赫拉迪(格拉岑),1680-1690

水晶玻璃,热成形,雕花;高20 cm

编号 13 147

1913年从布拉格的阿洛伊斯·波多切克处购得

这件甜食碗底足略呈拱形,高脚由上部的三个节突和下部类似栏杆立柱的结构组成。碗身不对称,饰有贝壳贴花,贝壳中镶嵌个珠子。碗身表面雕刻花朵等纹饰。格拉工坊的记录是由一个荷兰南部人路易·瓦瑟·德·奥斯芒特,用法文写成的。其中罗列了形形色色的玻璃器,包括葡萄酒杯,细口瓶和甜食碗。有两位雕刻者的名字——巴尔塔扎尔和克里斯托夫——频繁地与需要进一步加工的毛坯玻璃器皿同时被提及,而“克里斯塔里耶兄弟”则和其它玻璃器写在一起。很可能这些人名是指玻璃雕刻世家莱希纳家族的成员,17-19世纪期间他们一直在布奎伯爵的领地上工作。

Sweetmeat bowl with applied shell decoration

Southern Bohemia, Nové Hrady (Gratzen), 1680-1690

Crystal glass, hot-shaped, engraved; H. 20 cm

Inv. no. 13?147

Purchased in 1913 from Alois Pot??ek, Prague

This sweetmeat bowl is mounted on a domed base, with a stem fused to it made of a short baluster and knops (nodus in Latin, “node”). Asymmetrical in form, the bowl is decorated with a sculpted shell inset with a pearl. Its surface features ornamental carvings of pendants with flowers. Written in French by Louis Wasser d’Ossimont, a native of southern Netherlands, the Gratzen glasshouse records list a variety of glasses, including wine glasses, flacons, and sweetmeat bowls. The engravers by the names of Baltazar and Christoph are frequently mentioned with blanks sent for further decoration, while “les frères christaliers” are listed with other objects. In all probability, these records refer to members of the Lechner family of glass engravers who worked continually on the Buquoy family estates from the 17th to the 19th centuries.

HB

66

高脚酒杯,雕有神圣罗马帝国皇帝利奥波德一世胸像和铭文“LEOPOLDUS AUG. IMP. CAESAR P.F.”

玻璃产自波希米亚,雕刻完成于西里西亚,1680-1690

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高34 cm

编号 12 371

1911年购自莱茵河畔科隆,J.M.哈伯勒拍卖会

酒杯高脚类似栏杆立柱并间隔着圆玻璃片,这种装饰风格是17世纪最后25年波希米亚玻璃器的特征。杯身上的皇帝胸像可能是P.H.穆勒用一枚奖章模制而成的,这是一枚纪念1676年利奥波德一世第三次婚姻(新娘为埃利诺·玛格达莱妮·特蕾莎·冯·普法尔茨-诺伊堡)的奖章。利奥波德一世(1657–1705),神圣罗马帝国皇帝、波希米亚和匈牙利的国王、音乐爱好者和天才的作曲家,因1683年维也纳大败土耳其军队流芳百世。

Goblet with the bust of Emperor Leopold I and the inscription “LEOPOLDUS AUG. IMP. CAESAR P.F.”

Bohemia (glass) Silesia (cut), 1680–1690

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 34 cm

Inv. no. 12?371

Purchased in 1911 at the Auction J. M. Haberle, K?ln am Rhein

Goblets with tall baluster stems interspersed with discs are characteristic of Bohemian glass production of the final quarter of the 17th century. The portrait was probably modelled on a medal by P. H. Müller, minted to commemorate the Emperor’s third marriage, to Eleonore Magdalene Therese von Pfalz-Neuburg in 1676. Leopold I (1657–1705), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Hungary, a music aficionado and talented composer, is chiefly remembered for his victory over the Turkish army at Vienna in 1683.

HB

67

十二门徒酒杯

波希米亚,约1700年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高12 cm

编号 59 197

1962年通过所有权转让获得

Beaker with The Twelve Apostles

Bohemia, c. 1700

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 12 cm

Inv. no. 59?197

Acquired in 1962 by ownership transfer

HB

68

圣瓦茨拉夫(波希米亚大公)酒壶

波希米亚,约1710年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花,镶锡;高23 cm

编号 5 997

1895年从布拉格的V.肖拉处购得

圣瓦茨拉夫是波希米亚的守护神,他的形象被雕刻成一个圆形浮雕,四周环绕S形卷草纹。壶身配形状复杂的锡制瓶盖。雕刻精细人像和卷草纹的瓶身以及做工严丝合缝的瓶盖,都说明了这件酒壶是成套旅行用品中的一件。当时,高级教士和政府官员在出差和私人旅行时都使用成套玻璃器,它们一般都包括瓶/壶、大酒杯和高脚酒杯,用木箱收纳。

Bottle with St. Wenceslas (Duke of Bohemia)

Bohemia, c. 1710

Colourless glass, cut, engraved, tin mounting; H. 23 cm

Inv. no. 5?997

Purchased in 1895 from V. Chaura, Prague

This bottle depicting St. Wenceslas, a patron saint of Bohemia, in a medallion wreathed with S-shaped scrolls, is surmounted by an intricately fashioned tin cap. Both the decoration engraved with superb figural and ornamental designs and the highly exacting tin mount suggest that the bottle formed part of a larger travelling set. This assumption is corroborated by preserved glass sets comprising bottles, beakers and goblets, and stored in wooden cases, used by prelates and government officials during their business trips or leisure travels.

HB

69

奶瓶

纽伦堡,约1720年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花,部件银鎏金;高16 cm

编号 10 316

1906年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

与这件奶瓶类似的、饰有特别纹样的玻璃器在欧洲各大博物馆(包括布拉格装饰艺术博物馆)相对收藏较多;它们多呈卵圆形或圆锥形,口部状似奶嘴表明其功能为奶瓶。然而此件奶瓶形状特别,球状瓶身缓缓向上收口,盖着精美的银鎏金奶嘴。带状纹样和卷草纹围绕着三个圆形开光,开光内的符号意为“爱和纯真”,证明这是一件约1720年纽伦堡地区雕刻的作品。

Feeding bottle

Nuremberg, c. 1720

Colourless glass, cut, engraved, gilded silver mount; H. 16 cm

Inv. no. 10?316

Donated in 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna

Glass collections in museums throughout Europe, including the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, house relatively large numbers of similar objects decorated with distinctive designs. Their ovoid or conical shapes surmounted with the characteristic nipple-shaped cap indicates its use as a baby feeding bottle. Contrary to other such vessels, this bottle one has a bulbous shape that tapers gently toward the top, and is complemented by a superbly executed silver mount. The decoration of strapwork and scrolls, inset with three medallions featuring the symbols of love and innocence, attests to the work of Nuremberg engravers, dating to c. 1720.

HB

70

执壶

波希米亚,18世纪第一个25年

无色透明玻璃,刻花,镶锡;高31 cm

编号 82 441

1976年从布拉格的M.赫鲁巴处购得

这件执壶既可装葡萄酒也可装水,镶锡制壶盖,是波希米亚出口到欧洲其他地区的普通酒具。

Ewer

Bohemia, 1st quarter of 18th century

Colourless glass, cut, tin mounting; H. 31 cm

Inv. no. 82?441

Purchased in 1976 from M. Hrubá, Prague

This wine or water ewer equipped with a tin mount is an example of common tableware that was exported to many parts of Europe.

HB

71

高脚酒杯

波希米亚,18世纪第一个25年

无色透明玻璃嵌螺旋形红宝石玻璃丝,刻花和雕花;高16.5 cm

编号 17 344

1932年由斯图加特的古斯塔夫E.帕兹奥瑞克捐赠

Goblet

Bohemia, 1st half of 18th century

Colourless glass with embedded ruby spirals, cut, engraved; H. 16.5 cm

Inv. no. 17?344

Donated in 1932 by Gustav E. Pazaurek, Stuttgart

HB

72

酒杯

波希米亚,约1700年

红宝石玻璃,刻花和雕花;高8.8 cm

编号 14 584

1917年由布拉格的兹德涅克·舒伯特·冯·索登教授购得

Beaker

Bohemia, c. 1700

Ruby glass, cut, engraved; H. 8.8 cm

Inv. no. 14?584

Acquired in 1917 from Prof. Zd. Schubert von Soldern, Prague

HB

73

带盖双耳汤盆,部分银鎏金

可能产于德国南部,镶于奥格斯堡,萨穆埃尔·鲍尔制作,约1690-1699

红宝石玻璃,刻花,口沿等部位银鎏金;直径14 cm

编号 24 658

1939年海德维卡·希科娃捐赠

Ecuelle with silver-gilt mounts

Possibly south Germany, mounts Augsburg, Samuel Baur, c. 1690–1699

Ruby glass, cut, silver-gilt mounting; diameter 14 cm

Inv. no. 24?658

Donated in 1939 by Hedvika Schicková

HB

74

高脚酒杯

西里西亚,17世纪末

无色透明玻璃,刻花;高19 cm

编号 4 039

1891年通过所有权交换获得

巴洛克时期西里西亚刻花玻璃风格独特,模仿宝石雕刻技法在玻璃上作出浮雕纹饰。

Goblet

Silesia, end of 17th century

Colourless glass, cut; H. 19 cm

Inv. no. 4?039

Acquired in 1891 by ownership exchange

Silesian cut glass of the Baroque period is characterized by a distinctive style of design carved in relief that imitates glyptics – carvings on precious stones.

HB

75

高脚酒杯

德国萨克森州德累斯顿,约1720年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高35 cm

编号 25 603

1940年购自安东宁·内恰斯

这件高脚杯呈细喇叭形状,圆形开光中雕刻着狩猎场景,开光周围环绕着带纹和卷草纹,这些特征说明其雕刻者专为萨克森州选帝侯服务。

Goblet

Germany, Saxony, Dresden, c. 1720

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 35 cm

Inv. no. 25?603

Purchased in 1940 from Antonín Ne?as

This flute-shaped goblet with hunting scenes in medallions amidst strapwork and scrolls represents the work of engravers who were in the service of the the Electors of Saxony.

HB

76

高脚酒杯

波希米亚,1720-1740

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高29.5 cm

编号 5 399

1894年购自德雷斯顿的埃里森先生

这件高脚杯上雕刻着圣方济·沙勿略(1506–1552)人生中重要的一个场景。沙勿略是耶稣会士,也是耶稣会发起人之一,在东亚传教多年。类似的题材频繁见于波希米亚双层玻璃器。

Goblet

Bohemia, 1720-1740

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 29.5 cm

Inv. no. 5?399

Purchased in 1894 from Mr. Ehrichsohn, Dresden

The carved design on the goblet’s bowl depicts one of the many episodes in the life of Saint Francis Xavier (1506–1552), a Jesuit missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus, who spent many years in East Asia. The same motif was frequently used in Bohemian double-walled glass vessels.

HB

77

饰有布雷斯劳风景的高脚酒杯

西里西亚,约1735年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高28.2 cm

编号 10 417

1906年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

欧洲玻璃器藏品中有一些刻着布雷斯劳风景(类似于这件酒杯上的远景)。这些风景题材取自老马特乌斯·梅里安(1593-1650)为著名的《波希米亚、摩拉维亚和西里西亚地形图》一书所雕的铜版画插图,该书1650年出版于美茵河畔法兰克福。

Goblet with a view of Breslau

Silesia, c. 1735

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 28.2 cm

Inv. no. 10?417

Donated in 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna

European glass collections house a number of glasses depicting views of Breslau modelled (like this goblet’s veduta) on the illustration in the renowned Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae... of Mathaeus Merian the Elder (1593–1650), published in Frankfurt am Main in 1650.

HB

78

雕有战利品的高脚酒杯,象征着战胜土耳其人

波希米亚,约1700年

无色透明玻璃,嵌钳螺旋形红宝石和金色玻璃丝,刻花和雕花;高14.5 cm

编号 27 340

1942年购自M.赫梅拉若娃

Goblet with Military Trophies as an Allegory of the Victory over the Turks

Bohemia, c. 1700

Colourless glass, with embedded ruby and gold spirals, cut, engraved; H. 14.5 cm

Inv. no. 27 340

Purchased in 1942 from M. Chmela?ová

HB

79

高脚碗

波希米亚,1720-1740

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高18 cm

编号 5 384

1894年购自德雷斯顿的埃里森先生

Footed bowl

Bohemia, 1720–1740

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 18 cm

Inv. no. 5?384

Purchased in 1894 from Mr. Ehrichsohn, Dresden

HB

80

高脚碗

西里西亚,约1730年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高12.3 cm

编号 93 900

1971年由莱昂·邦迪基金转让而购得

Footed Bowl

Silesia, c. 1730

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 12.3 cm

Inv. no. 93?900

Acquired in 1971 by transfer from the Leon Bondy Fund

HB

81

带盖子的高脚酒杯

波希米亚,约1720年

无色透明玻璃,嵌螺旋形红宝石和金色玻璃丝,刻花和雕花;高35 cm

编号 3 627

1890年购自布鲁纳-费尔萨赫拍卖会

1720年至1740年间,波希米亚玻璃器的装饰风格变为贝朗式,这种风格是法国路易十四的御用设计师让·贝朗(1640–1711)创造的,其特点为使用带状纹样、阿拉伯式蔓藤纹以及怪诞元素。当时一个叫保罗·德克尔的建筑师进一步在装饰中欧建筑内、外部和日常生活用品时引入了这一风格。

Covered goblet

Bohemia, c. 1720

Colourless glass, with embedded ruby and gold spirals, cut, engraved; H. 35 cm

Inv. no. 3?627

Purchased in 1890 at the Breuner-Felsach Auction

In 1720–1740, Bohemian glass decorators turned to the Bérainesque style of ornament characterized by strapwork, arabesques and grotesque ornament, inspired by the work of Jean Bérain the Elder (1640–1711), court designer to Louis XIV, King of France. The architect Paul Decker (1677–1713) of Nuremberg introduced this new ornamental style into the decoration of interiors, fa?ades, and everyday objects in central Europe.

HB

82

酒杯

波希米亚,约1740年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高12.5 cm

编号 10 286

1906年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

Beaker

Bohemia, c. 1740

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 12.5 cm

Inv. no. 10?286

Donated in 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna

HB

83

有足酒杯,刻有罗马英雄斯凯沃拉的形象

西里西亚,约1740年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高13.5 cm

编号 87 907

1980年从日恰尼的V. 西梅克处购得

Footed beaker depicting the Roman hero Gaius Mucius Scaevola

Silesia, c. 1740

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 13.5 cm

Inv. no. 87?907

Purchased in 1980 from Dr. V. ?imek, ?í?any

HB

84

雕着酒神巴克斯的有盖高脚酒杯

德国柏林-采希林,约1740年

无色透明玻璃,刻花和雕花;高26 cm

编号 10 157

1906年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

Covered goblet depicting Bacchus

Berlin-Zechlin, c. 1740

Colourless glass, cut, engraved; H. 26 cm

Inv. no. 10?157

Donated in 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna, Prague

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(2) 巴洛克和洛可可时期的彩绘双层玻璃器 Painted and Double-Walled Glass of the Baroque and Rococo Periods

85

绘有刚朵拉的酒杯

德国,纽伦堡,约翰·沙佩尔(活跃于1655-1670)绘制,约1680-1690

无色透明玻璃,热成形,黑色画珐琅;高7 cm

编号 10 010

1906年布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼捐赠

黑色画珐琅工艺最初只用于平面的染色玻璃和窗玻璃,这种工艺用于立体的器皿和釉陶可以追溯到17世纪中期,纽伦堡,当时画匠们第一次在玻璃器上做黑色珐琅画。除主要倡导者约翰·沙佩尔(活跃于1655-1670)外,许多其他熟练地画匠也使用了这种画法。

Beaker with two gondolas

Germany, Nuremberg, Johann Schaper, c. 1680–1690

Colourless glass, hot-shaped, painted in Schwarzlot; H. 7 cm

Inv. no. 10?010

Donated in 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna

Originally used for flat stained glass and window discs, Schwarzlot painting on holloware and faience originated in Nuremberg around the mid-17th century, when painters first applied it to glass vessels. Besides Johann Schaper (active in 1655–1670), the leading exponent of this decorative technique, many other highly skilled painters employed this method.

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86

两个中国风调料瓶

东波希米亚,库恩斯塔特(德语:克朗斯塔特),丹尼尔和伊格纳茨·普莱斯勒工坊制作,约1725-1730

无色透明玻璃,刻花,黑色画珐琅;高12.5 cm

编号 399,10 036

布拉格的沃伊切克·兰尼分别于1886和1906年捐赠

这两件醋瓶和油瓶很有可能是宴请用具,其功能弥补了宴请用瓷餐具的不足。其表面花纹是当时非常流行的中国元素,外加同样风靡的贝朗式条状纹饰和阿拉伯蔓草纹。

Two bottles with chinoiserie

Eastern Bohemia, Kun?tát (Kronstadt), Workshop of Daniel and Ignaz Preissler, c. 1725–1730

Colourless glass, cut, painted in Schwarzlot; H. 12.5 cm

Inv. no. 399, 10?036

Donated in 1886 and 1906 by Vojtěch Lanna, Prague

In all likelihood, these two vinegar and oil cruets were used in banquets, as they complemented porcelain services on tableware services intended for festive occasions. Their surfaces are decorated with the then immensely popular chinoiserie designs, combined with the fashionable Bérainesque type of ornament typified by strapwork and areabesques.

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87

中国风玻璃板画

东波希米亚,库恩斯塔特(德语:克朗斯塔特),丹尼尔和伊格纳茨·普莱斯勒工坊出品,约1725-1730

乳白玻璃,黑色画珐琅,鎏金木框;玻璃画芯9.8×14.6 cm (连框18.5×13.5 cm)

编号 75 151

1971年购自M.萨哈拉多瓦(原为科洛瓦特?列本斯坦伯爵藏品)

这件长方形的玻璃板画,为瓷板画仿品,上面画着远东式房屋、飞翔的仙鹤、画面前方有低矮假山石和中国人。这种中国风题材过去也称“印度纹样”,其灵感最初来自约翰?尼霍夫极受欢迎的游记。尼霍夫是阿姆斯特丹东印度公司的一员,1655至1677年间他游历过中国,写了一部游记并配了插图。这部游记于1665年在阿姆斯特丹出版,被译成多国文字。与这块玻璃板画同一系列的共有81块,尺寸都相同,它们被镶嵌在科洛瓦特?列本斯坦伯爵府邸的一件中式橱柜上,伯爵府邸位于东波希米亚的里赫诺夫。

Small plaque with chinoiserie

Eastern Bohemia, Kun?tát (Kronstadt), Workshop of Daniel and Ignaz Preissler, c. 1725–1730

Milk glass, painted in Schwarzlot, gilt-wood frame; 9.8 x 14.6 cm (with frame 18.5 x 13.5 cm)

Inv. no. 75?151

Purchased in 1971 from M. Zahradová (originally in the collections of Counts Kolowrat Liebstein)

This rectangular plaque, imitating faience tiles, features a landscape scene with Far Eastern architecture, cranes in flight, a roughly indicated rock in the foreground and Chinese figures. These chinoiserie, also known as “Indian motifs” in the past, were first inspired by the extremely popular travel book of Johan Nieuhof, who journeyed to China in 1655–1677 as a member of the Amsterdam-based East India Company. The outcome of his journeys was an illustrated book written during his travels, published in 1665 in Amsterdam and translated into a number of languages. A total of 81 plaques of equal size decorated the “Chinese cabinet” in the residence of the Counts Liebstein of Kolowrat in Rychnov in eastern Bohemia.

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