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第八章 两次世界大战之间的玻璃器(1)
     发布时间:2015-03-17

第八章  两次世界大战之间的玻璃器

   装饰艺术运动是在第一次世界大战之后流行起来的风格运动。以强烈的色彩和局部抽象的装饰为特点,主要影响应用艺术和世界时尚, 装饰艺术运动的名字来源于1925 年在巴黎举行的“现代工艺和装饰艺术博览会”(Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes),也被称作“1925风格”。装饰艺术在不同的国家有不同的形式,通常投射出一个民族的艺术意志。在三十年代后期,以对应这种高度装饰的视觉风格而出现了功能主义,这种风格被写入建筑体系,遵循建筑外观以理性主义为基础的理论,宣扬“形式服从功能”。功能性、简洁且最低限度或完全不进行装饰是基本的先决条件,体现出同时期建筑及包括玻璃制品在内的日常用品的设计风格。

Glass Between the Two World Wars

Art Deco was a fashionable stylistic movement that issued from post-World I optimism. Distinguished by striking colours and a partially abstract décor, and chiefly affecting the applied arts and the world of fashion, Art Deco was named after the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, and also known as “The 1925 Style”. In different countries, it took on various forms, frequently with ethnographic elements projected into it. In the late thirties, Functionalism emerged in response to this highly decorative visual idiom. This style’s tenets were codified in architecture based on rationalist theories regarding the appearance of buildings, espousing the principles of “form follows function”. Functionality, simplicity and minimal or virtually no decoration were the essential prerequisites that formulated contemporary architecture and objects of everyday use, including glass.

VIII两次世界大战之间的玻璃器

Glass Between the Two World Wars

185

花瓶

奥地利维也纳,维也纳工坊协会出品;约瑟夫·霍夫曼(设计),1920年前

出品人:莫泽玻璃制品公司,位于卡尔斯巴德(现名:卡罗维发利)的法院附近;制作人:梅耶侄子公司,位于温特伯格的阿道夫,约1925年

吹制,刻花玻璃;高20 cm

编号85 542

1977年从A. 斯拉莫娃处购得

Vase

Austria, Vienna, Wiener Werkst?tte; Josef Hoffmann (design), before 1920

For the Moser glass company, Meierh?fen bei Karlsbad (Dvory near Karlovy Vary), produced by Meyrs Neffe glassworks, Adolf bei Winterberg (Adolfov near Vimperk), c. 1925

Blown, cut glass; H.?20 cm

Inv. no. 85?542

Purchased in 1977 from A.?Slámová

MH

186

带浆果状塞子的香水瓶

法国,位于莫代河畔万让的拉力克玻璃厂,1920年;勒内·拉利克(设计)

模压玻璃,吹塑成形;高11.7 cm

编号40?120

1955年从康斯坦丁·博卢莫维奇处购得

Perfume bottle with stopper, “Bouchon m?res” (Berry stopper)

France, Lalique glassworks, Wingen–sur–Moder, 1920; René Lalique (design)

Mould-pressed and mould-blown glass; H. 11.7 cm

Inv. no. 40?120

Purchased in 1955 from Konstantin Bljumovi?

MH

187

粉盒

法国,位于莫代河畔万让的拉力克玻璃厂;勒内·拉利克(设计),约1921年

模压玻璃;高5 cm,直径13.8 cm

编号 76 205

1972年从A. 佩希诺娃处购得

Powder box

France, Lalique glassworks, Wingen–sur–Moder; René Lalique (design), c. 1921

Mould-pressed glass; H. 5 cm, diameter 13.8 cm

Inv. no. 76?205

Purchased in 1972 from A.?Pe?inová

MH

188

带钥匙的盒子,镶“银扇草”玻璃

法国,位于莫代河畔万让的拉力克玻璃厂;勒内·拉利克(设计),约1920年

模压玻璃,木头和金属;高8.5 cm,宽31 cm,直径19 cm

编号 77?241

1974年购自古董店

Box with key, “Monnaie du pape”

France, Lalique glassworks, Wingen–sur–Moder; René Lalique (design), c. 1920

Mould-pressed glass, wood, metal; H. 8.5 cm, W. 31 cm, Diameter 19 cm

Inv. no. 77?241

Purchased in 1974 from an antique shop

MH

189

土耳其人

捷克斯洛伐克,位于热莱兹尼布罗德的玻璃工艺学校;雅罗斯拉夫·布里赫塔(设计),1925年后

拉丝热塑玻璃,金属丝,木头;高16 cm

编号105?405

2009年购自拍卖会

雕塑家雅罗斯拉夫·布里赫塔(1895–1971)是位于北波希米亚热莱兹尼布罗德的玻璃工艺学校教师队伍中最出色的一员。布里赫塔不仅开发了拉丝热塑工艺,而且还赋予了这种工艺雕塑的特性,他的这类作品既有独特的诗意又富有幽默感,我们可以从20世纪20年代他早期创作的穿金属丝人像中感受到。

Figurine of a “Turk”

Czechoslovakia, Glassmaking School, ?elezny Brod; Jaroslav Brychta (design), after 1925

Lampworked glass, wire, wood; H. 16 cm

Inv. no. 105?405

Purchased in 2009 at auction

The sculptor Jaroslav Brychta (1895–1971) was one of the most outstanding personalities on the teaching staff of the glass school in ?elezny Brod in northern Bohemia. Brychta not only developed the field of lampworked glass, but also imbued it with sculptural properties, typified by a distinctive poetic style and humour. This is evidenced in his wire-strung figurines made early in his career around the mid-1920s.

MH

190

小提琴家

捷克斯洛伐克,位于热莱兹尼布罗德的玻璃工艺学校;雅罗斯拉夫·布里赫塔(设计),1925年后

拉丝热塑玻璃,金属丝,木头;高15 cm

编号105 404

2009年购自拍卖会

Figurine of a “Violinist”

Czechoslovakia, Glassmaking School, ?elezny Brod; Jaroslav Brychta (design), after 1925

Lampworked glass, wire, wood; H. 15 cm

Inv. no. 105?404

Purchased at auction in 2009

MH

191

花瓶

捷克斯洛伐克,位于热莱兹尼布罗德的玻璃工艺学校;阿洛伊斯·梅泰拉克(造型)和兹德涅克·尤纳(设计),约1935年

吹制、喷砂玻璃,描金;高22 cm

编号 63?422

1964年购自热莱兹尼布罗德的玻璃工艺学校

Vase

Czechoslovakia, Glassmaking School, ?elezny Brod

Alois Metelák (form) and Zdeněk Juna (design), c. 1935

Blown, sand-blasted and gilded glass; H. 22 cm

Inv. no. 63?422

Acquired in 1964 from the glassmaking school

MH

192

花瓶

捷克斯洛伐克,位于莱诺拉的威廉海姆·克拉利克玻璃厂制作,1923-1926

吹制玻璃,热成形;高40 cm

编号 104?968

2009年购自古董店,伊日·昂莱赞助

Vase

Czechoslovakia, Wilhelm Kralik glassworks, Eleonorenhain (Lenora), 1923–1926

Blown, hot-shaped glass; H. 40 cm

Inv. no. 104?968

Purchased in 2009 from an antique shop, sponsored by Ji?í Emler

MH